1. Important thing is, to control your heart. this is probably THE most difficult thing to do. at any point, you shouldn't even think that you're better than the dog. a dog may most probably enter heaven, tapi kita ni, masih belum tentu lagi kat mana kedudukan kita kelak. as such, treat all god's creation with proper care, handling and respect
2. Islam itu luas. bab hukum-hakam is just one part of it. there's also muamalat (dealings/interactions with others) that need to be considered too (will get back to these later on other points).
now, on some hukum hakam yang baru belajar tadi. it's important to note that the ustaz just now emphasize that this is accordance to mazhab shafie (which are being practiced by majority muslim in Malaysia), which are known to be a bit stricter and inclining on the "safe side". yes, i'm aware of other mazhab as well, but please leave that argument on other discussion.
a. it's OK to touch a dog, with strong reason to do so: education, overcoming fear, helping a dog in distress, etc. it's NOT OK to touch a dog simply because you want to pet it
b. it's OK to own a dog, with strong reason as well: as guide dog, to safeguard your property, for hunting, for police/military usage, etc. it's NOT OK to own a dog just as pet.
b.1. if you're getting one to guard your property, do get your neighbour's consent. back to point no.2 above. if getting a dog will cause discomfort to your neighbour, it's wise NOT to get a dog.
c. it's okay to keep a dog outside your house, it's not okay to keep it inside your house
d. if you touch a dog when either you, or the dog is wet, then you need to do sertu. the cleansing of using water+soil 1x, and water 6x. this is because at this time, it's considered as najis mughallazah
e. if you touch a dog when both of you are dry, cleaning yourself with water is enough. this is considered as najis only. (i pun baru tahu pasal ni. reason being, if air liur is najis, dikiaskan "apa-apa yang dari anjing" is najis, e.g bulu)
f. mistreating or ill-treatment of dogs are HARAM, by all mazhab.
g. if you see a muslim who owns a dog, PLEASE do not straightway label HARAM, or masuk neraka, or something like that. Islam teaches us to always think positive about others. they may have need to own one, they probably keep it outside their house, etc. refer point 1-(hati kena baik), and 2-(interactions with others). plus who gets to enter syurga or neraka is something that none of us have knowledge of
h. having said point (g), and refering back to point (2), AVOIDING fitnah is better. which probably means, if getting a dog would cause you into being cast away by neighbours, family, friends, and attracting more negative than positive, it's probably wise to just avoid it at all
i. and having said point (g) and (h), in the end, it's toleration towards others, education, communication and open mind that can keep us living in a harmony community.